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Seal Conservation

Bearded seal

Bearded seal. Photo: NOAA


Many seal species depend on sea ice for their survival. As global climate change reduces the extent, duration, and thickness of sea ice, these seal species are threatened with extinction.

As global warming worsens, the (un)natural mortality rate of the harp seals worsens, too. Harp seal mothers need large, sturdy ice floes to give birth to their pups, and pups do not know how to swim for the first few weeks of their lives.

Bearded seals, like the one shown in the photo to the right are now listed as threatened, giving them extra protection in the U.S.



Seal pup falls in water - IFAW photoHarp seals depend on sea ice for pupping. In the first weeks of life, seal pups can't swim. This seal pup was in trouble as the ice around it crumbled. Photo by IFAW.


Seals of the Arctic

Six seal species live in the Arctic region: bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, ribbon seals, ringed seals, and spotted seals. Bearded seals, harp seals, and ringed seals are especially vulnerable to disappearing sea ice.







Arctic sea ice extent

Click on picture for larger image

Bearded seals and ringed seals give birth on dense ice packs or on "fast ice", ice usually located over shallow parts of the ocean that is 'fastened' to the ocean floor or shore', such that it does not drift in the wind. They also require snow cover on the ice to build lairs for giving birth.

Harp seals follow the sea ice all year, migrating south from the Arctic in the spring. The seals give birth off the coast of Norway and Newfoundland and Labrador, in Russia's White Sea, and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence of Canada. The pups begin life unable to swim. Thus they require sturdy sea ice during the birthing season in February and March.




Historical sea ice coverage in Gulf of St. Lawrence

Click on picture for larger image.

In recent years, thousands of harp seal pups have drowned due to insufficient and broken up sea ice. Unusually poor ice conditions have been reported in 2006, 2007, and each year from 2010 on.

In 2011, the ice floes were in very poor condition. The February 2011 ice cover was the worst in recorded history, but this did not stop the Canadian government (i.e., the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, DFO, led by Minister Gail Shea) from setting an astronomical quota on the killing of harp seal pups.

In the end, a fraction of these seals were killed as a result of the closing of pelt markets.

Read about the 2011 seal hunt here.

Read the latest news on seals and sealing in Canada here.


The animal protection organization IFAW worked with Duke University scientists on a study of the harp seal population and the current and projected future effects of climate change on the species. Read about the Duke/IFAW study here. A follow-up study investigated causes of harp seal strandings and found increased strandings of harp seal pups in years with poor sea ice. It also found that young males stranded more frequently than young females.

Seals on broken ice
MEAT COVE — Poor ice conditions in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence are likely to endanger this year’s harp seal pups. Cape Breton Post, March, 2011

Read the published report on the study about the effects of climate change on harp seals here.

Even the scientists of the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) have reported that the population is now in decline.

Harpseals.org believes that the future of harp seals is in peril and that it is high time that the government of Canada work to protect seals and ban the killing of seals once and for all.




NOAA Fisheries lists ice seals as threatened, endangered

Dec. 21, 2012

ringed seal pup
A ringed seal pup peeks out from its protective snow cave near Kotzebue, Alaska. Photo: Mike Cameron, NOAA's National Marine Mammal Laboratory

After two years of study and public comment, the U.S. agency, NOAA fisheries, announced that it was listing four subspecies of ringed seals and two distinct population segments of bearded seals under the Endangered Species Act.

NOAA will list the Beringia and Okhotsk distinct population segments of bearded seals and the Arctic, Okhotsk, and Baltic subspecies of ringed seals as threatened. It will list the Ladoga subspecies of ringed seals as endangered.

The reasons NOAA cites for the listings are

• Under the ESA, a threatened species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. An endangered species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

• Ringed and bearded seals are particularly dependent upon ice and snow for survival. Many aspects of the ringed and bearded seal’s life cycles depend on the availability of suitable ice, and for ringed seals snow cover, at the right time of the year in areas with sufficient food.

• Climate models consistently project diminishing ice and snow cover at least through the current century, with regional variation in the timing and severity of those losses.

• Although ringed and bearded seals are currently numerous in Alaska, NMFS has concluded that the changes in ice, and for ringed seals snow cover, are likely to lead to population declines in the foreseeable future and pose significant long-term threats to the persistence of these seals.

Contrast this with the actions of the Canadian government in managing the ice seals (i.e., harp seals) in its waters: instead of designating the species as protected, it spends millions of taxpayer dollars to massacre the seals.



Seals of the Antarctic

A Weddell seal

Four seal species live in the Antarctic: crabeater seals, leopard seals, Ross seals, and Weddell seals. Crabeater seals and Weddell seals give birth on sea ice and are thus at risk of exctinction as temperatures warm and the formation of sturdy sea ice becomes less reliable


Another threat to the survival of seals

In addition to the lack of sea ice, some species of seals and other marine mammals are threatened by reductions in the availability of prey. Prey populations are affected by climate change, over-fishing, and ocean pollution. A reduction in the abundance of plankton affects life up the food chain.

Click here for additional information and a pictorial description of predator-prey effects with grey seals.

Sea lions of the United States

Sea lions are also pinnipeds and are in the same family as Cape fur seals. In the U.S., sea lions have been designated as threats to salmon and have been targeted for killing and relocated to zoos by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Read more about this controversy here.

Seals are an important part of the ocean ecosystem

Seal conservation is about far more than saving seals and stopping the Canadian seal slaughter. It is about saving marine ecosystems, of which all seals are an integral part.

Historical records from the time Europeans arrived in Newfoundland demonstrate that, without interference from these immigrants, seal populations much larger than that remaining today coexisted with cod so abundant that ships had difficulty maneuvering through the waters.

Today, conservation issues in the Arctic and North Atlantic region include the effects of large-scale commercial fishing, using such methods as bottom trawling and long-line fishing; global climate change, including changes in ocean currents, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature; increased ship traffic as a result of decreases in sea ice; ocean pollution; and sealing.

The following are links to programs that may be of interest to those who wish to study marine ecosystems and marine mammal conservation:

Institute for Marine Mammal Studies

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Marine Mammal Program

Other links to societies and graduate programs from the Society for Marine Mammology



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